Carbonized Rubber Electrodes Best for EMS & TENS

Factors influencing quadriceps femoris muscle torque using transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation.Physical Therapy. 1991 Oct;71(10):715-21; discussion 722-3. Lieber RL, Kelly MJ. Abstract Quadriceps femoris muscle torque was measured in 40 subjects during transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Three different electrode types (carbonized rubber, sponge, and adhesive) were used on each subject, permitting determination of the factors … Read more

TENS Electrodes Work Best Over Muscle or Soft Tissue

An investigation into the magnitude of the current window and perception of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) sensation at various frequencies and body sites in healthy human participants. Hughes N, Bennett MI, Johnson MI.Clin J Pain. 2013 Feb;29(2):146-53. AbstractINTRODUCTION:Strong nonpainful transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is prerequisite to a successful analgesic outcome although the ease … Read more