Electric Stimulation for RSD / CRPS (Chad’s Review)

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy  (RSD), causalgia, and a host of other names is kind of like headaches and neuropathy were for me. In that I didn’t initially have any particular interest in the condition but I have a tremendous interests in electric stimulation, particularly electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) … Read more

My Continued Electric Stimulation Headache Data

  The following is my headache results with electric muscle stimulation (EMS) and builds on a prior blog where I did the same thing but with somewhat different electrode placement, and slightly different parameters programmed into my EMS machines. Treatment results on 20 headaches had an average near immediate pain reduction of 90% effectiveness (which … Read more

EMS, High-Frequency Fatigue and Pain, Particularly Headaches & Back Pain

I needed a break from fasting papers and, while I’m a big, BIG fan of EMS, and to a substantially lesser extent TENS, I am underwhelmed by high “kilohertz-frequency” alternating type currents as is commonly used in Russian stimulation for strength and interferential currents (IFC), sometimes used for both strength and pain. However, I thought … Read more

Electrical Stimulation for Aerobics

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation can elicit aerobic exercise response without undue discomfort in healthy physically active adults. Crognale D, Vito GD, Grosset JF, Crowe L, Minogue C, Caulfield B. J Strength Cond Res. 2013 Jan;27(1):208-15.[Free Full Text] Abstract Recent studies have suggested that subtetanic neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) protocols applied to the quadriceps and hamstrings may … Read more

EMS Effects the Brain as well as Muscles

Functional MRI determination of a dose-response relationship to lower extremity neuromuscular electrical stimulation in healthy subjects. Exp Brain Res. 2003 May;150(1):33-9. Epub 2003 Mar 27. Smith GV1, Alon G, Roys SR, Gullapalli RP. Abstract Although empirical evidence supports the use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) to treat physical impairments associated with stroke, the mechanisms underlying … Read more

Electric Stimulation and Plantar Fasciitis

Use of low-frequency electrical stimulation for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2009 Nov-Dec;99(6):481-8. Stratton M1, McPoil TG, Cornwall MW, Patrick K. Abstract BACKGROUND: Recent research has discussed the use of low-frequency electrical stimulation to increase blood flow by eliciting muscular contraction in soft tissues. This randomized clinical trial examined the … Read more

Fibromyalgia Pain Decreased 30% with TENS and Exercise

Effectiveness of high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation at tender points as adjuvant therapy for patients with fibromyalgia. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2013 Apr;49(2):197-204. Carbonario F, Matsutani LA, Yuan SL, Marques AP. Abstract BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome associated with sleep disorders, fatigue and psychological symptoms. Combinations therapies, such as electrotherapy and therapeutic … Read more

Fibromyalgia Improved Immediatley with TENS

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation reduces pain, fatigue and hyperalgesia while restoring central inhibition in primary fibromyalgia. Pain. 2013 Nov;154(11):2554-62. Dailey DL, Rakel BA, Vance CG, Liebano RE, Amrit AS, Bush HM, Lee KS, Lee JE, Sluka KA. Abstract Because transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) works by reducing central excitability and activating central inhibition pathways, we … Read more

Greater EMS Rate Causes Greater Blood Flow with Peripheral Artery Disease

Calf muscle stimulation with the Veinoplus device results in a significant increase in lower limb inflow without generating limb ischemia or pain in patients with peripheral artery disease. J Vasc Surg. 2013 Mar;57(3):714-9. Abraham P1, Mateus V, Bieuzen F, Ouedraogo N, Cisse F, Leftheriotis G. Abstract OBJECTIVE: Increase in arterial inflow to the lower limbs … Read more

Electric Stimulation and Peripheral Vascular Disease

Chronic muscle stimulation improves ischaemic muscle performance in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Eur J Vasc Surg. 1994 Jul;8(4):419-22. Tsang GM1, Green MA, Crow AJ, Smith FC, Beck S, Hudlicka O, Shearman CP. Abstract There is currently no established treatment for intermittent claudication with proven long term benefit. Exercise classes have been shown to improve … Read more

Electric Muscle Stimulation Helps Rheumatoid Arthritis

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and volitional exercise for individuals with rheumatoid arthritis: a multiple-patient case report. Physical Therapy. 2007 Aug;87(8):1064-77. Piva SR1, Goodnite EA, Azuma K, Woollard JD, Goodpaster BH, Wasko MC, Fitzgerald GK. Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Muscle atrophy is common in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a viable … Read more

EMS Increases Circulation and Function with Severe PVD

The influence of electrostimulation on the circulation of the remaining leg in patients with one-sided amputation. Angiology. 2002 May-Jun;53(3):329-35. Presern-Strukelj M1, Poredos P. Abstract The aim of the authors’ study was to investigate, in patients with one leg amputated, the influence of electrostimulation on the arterial circulation of the other lower limb and on the ability of … Read more

Electric Stimulation Increases Capillary Number and Oxygenation in Peripheral Vascular Disease

Noninvasive augmentation of microvessel number in patients with peripheral vascular disease. J Vasc Surg. 2003 Dec;38(6):1309-12. Clover AJ, McCarthy MJ, Hodgkinson K, Bell PR, Brindle NP. Abstract OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic angiogenesis has great potential for the treatment of ischemic diseases. One possible route for noninvasive induction of microvessels has recently been suggested by the finding that … Read more

Electric Stimulation for Intermittent Claudication

Chronic transcutaneous electrical stimulation of calf muscles improves functional capacity without inducing systemic inflammation in claudicants. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2004 Feb;27(2):201-9. Anderson SI, Whatling P, Hudlicka O, Gosling P, Simms M, Brown MD. Abstract OBJECTIVES: To assess whether electrical stimulation of ischaemic calf muscles in claudicants causes a systemic inflammatory response and to … Read more

Electrical Stimulation to Treat Cluster Headaches

Nociception specific supraorbital nerve stimulation may prevent cluster headache attacks: Serendipity in a blink reflex study. Cephalalgia. 2014 Mar 10. [Epub ahead of print] Haane DY1, Koehler PJ. Abstract BACKGROUND: In cluster headache, neuromodulation is offered when patients are refractory to pharmacological prophylaxis. Non-invasive peripheral neuromodulatory approaches are of interest. We will focus on these … Read more

Migraine Headache Prevention with TENS (Cefaly Effectiveness Study)

Migraine prevention with a supraorbital transcutaneous stimulator: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology. 2013 Feb 19;80(8):697-704. Schoenen J, Vandersmissen B, Jeangette S, Herroelen L, Vandenheede M, Gérard P, Magis D. Abstract OBJECTIVE: To assess efficacy and safety of trigeminal neurostimulation with a supraorbital transcutaneous stimulator (Cefaly, STX-Med., Herstal, Belgium) in migraine prevention. METHODS: This was a … Read more

Safety and Satisfaction of Cefaly (Headband TENS) for Headaches

Safety and patients’ satisfaction of transcutaneous supraorbital neurostimulation (tSNS) with the Cefaly® device in headache treatment: a survey of 2,313 headache sufferers in the general population. J Headache Pain. 2013 Dec 1;14:95. doi: 10.1186/1129-2377-14-95. Magis D, Sava S, d’Elia TS, Baschi R, Schoenen J. Abstract BACKGROUND: Transcutaneous supraorbital nerve stimulation (tSNS) with the Cefaly® device … Read more

Migraine Headaches, Electric Stimulation and Paresthesia Concordancy

Peripheral neuromodulation and headaches: history, clinical approach, and considerations on underlying mechanisms. Reed KL. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2013 Jan;17(1):305.< From the Review: “With the publication of their “Gate Control Theory” of pain modulation in 1965, Wall and Melzack provided a conceptual mechanistic foundation for considering direct electrical stimulation of the spinal cord and peripheral … Read more

EMS Decreases Pain, Numbness, Burning, and Improves Sleep with Neuropathy

External electric muscle stimulation improves burning sensations and sleeping disturbances in patients with type 2 diabetes and symptomatic neuropathy.  Pain Med. 2009 Mar;10(2):413-9.  Humpert PM, Morcos M, Oikonomou D, Schaefer K, Hamann A, Bierhaus A, Schilling T, Nawroth PP. OBJECTIVE: External muscle stimulation (EMS) of the thighs was previously shown to have beneficial effects in … Read more

Electric Muscle Stimulation Better than TENS for Neuropathy

Effective treatment of symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy by high-frequency external muscle stimulation. Diabetologia. 2005 May;48(5):824-8.  Reichstein L, Labrenz S, Ziegler D, Martin S. Abstract AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetic distal symmetrical sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) affects 20-30% of diabetic patients. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and electrical spinal cord stimulation have been proposed as physical therapies. We performed a controlled, … Read more

Electric Stimulation Complementary with Drug Treatment for Neuropathy

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Effectiveness of electrotherapy and amitriptyline for symptomatic relief. Diabetes Care. 1998 Aug;21(8):1322-5. Kumar D, Alvaro MS, Julka IS, Marshall HJ. From the study: Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of combining electrotherapy with amitriptyline for the management of chronic painful peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: … Read more

Electric Stimulation Decreases/Eliminates Painful Neuropathy

  Diabetic peripheral neuropathy: amelioration of pain with transcutaneous electrostimulation. Diabetes Care. 1997 Nov;20(11):1702-5. Kumar D, Marshall HJ. Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of transcutaneous electrotherapy for chronic painful peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients with symptoms and signs of peripheral neuropathy were randomized to the … Read more

EMS Better than TENS for Pain

Combined neuromuscular electrical stimulation and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for treatment of chronic back pain: a double-blind, repeated measures comparison. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997 Jan;78(1):55-60. Moore SR1, Shurman J. INTERVENTIONS: Subjects self-administered NMES, combined NMES/TENS, TENS, and placebo treatments. Each treatment had a duration of 5 consecutive hours per day over 2 consecutive days, … Read more

Electric Stimulation Increases Strength and Decreases Pain in Patients with Osteoarthritis

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) reduces structural and functional losses of quadriceps muscle and improves health status in patients with knee osteoarthritis. J Orthop Res. 2013 Apr;31(4):511-6. From the study: “OA patients presented smaller vastus lateralis thickness (11.9 mm) and fascicle length (20.5%) than healthy subjects (14.1 mm; 24.5%), and also had a 23% smaller knee … Read more

Electric Muscle Stimulation Prevents Atrophy after Total Knee Replacement

Early neuromuscular electrical stimulation to improve quadriceps muscle strength after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial. Physical Therapy. 2012 Feb;92(2):210-26. Stevens-Lapsley JE1, Balter JE, Wolfe P, Eckhoff DG, Kohrt WM. From the study: “Sixty-six patients, aged 50 to 85 years and planning a primary unilateral TKA, were randomly assigned to receive either standard rehabilitation … Read more

Physical Therapy and EMS after Total Knee Arthoplasty: More Current = More Muscle

Relationship between intensity of quadriceps muscle neuromuscular electrical stimulation and strength recovery after total knee arthroplasty. Physical Therapy. 2012 Sep;92(9):1187-96. Abstract BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can facilitate the recovery of quadriceps muscle strength after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), yet the optimal intensity (dosage) of NMES and its effect on strength after TKA have yet … Read more

Cluster Headaches and Migraines, What I Am Learning from the Surgically Implanted Electrical Stimulation Studies.

Greater occipital nerve stimulation via the Bion microstimulator: implantation technique and stimulation parameters. Clinical trial: NCT00205894. Pain Physician. 2009 May-Jun;12(3):621-8. Abstract BACKGROUND: Millions of patients suffer from medically refractory and disabling primary headache disorders. This problem has led to a search for new and innovative treatment modalities, including neuromodulation of the occipital nerves. OBJECTIVES: The … Read more

Electric Muscle Stimulation BEFORE Total Knee Replacement Improves Outcomes

“Effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and functional recovery in total knee arthroplasty. A pilot study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010 Jun 14;11:119. ” <br) BACKGROUND: Supervised preoperative muscle strengthening programmes (prehabilitation) can improve recovery after total joint arthroplasty but are considered resource intensive. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been shown to improve … Read more

Electric Muscle Stimulation for Strength, How to Make It Work.

”Electromyostimulation–a systematic review of the influence of training regimens and stimulation parameters on effectiveness in electromyostimulation training of selected strength parameters. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Nov;25(11):3218-38. ” Since I plan to discuss a number of studies on electric stimulation, I figured I should get this one out there. It gives some background as to which … Read more

Physical Therapy and EMS: Restores Activation, Strength 1 Year Post TKA

”The use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation to improve activation deficits in a patient with chronic quadriceps strength impairments following total knee arthroplasty. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2006 Sep;36(9):678-85.” This was a single-patient case study of a patient who had high level function but persistent quadriceps weakness and activation deficits 13.5 months post op. … Read more

EMS Decreases Back Pain, Increases Core Strength, Endurance

“Effects of electrical stimulation program on trunk muscle strength, functional capacity, quality of life, and depression in the patients with low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Rheumatol Int. 2009 Jun;29(8):947-54.” Right now this is my favorite electric muscle stimulation (EMS) study with regards to low back pain as I read it soon after I … Read more