Exercise Won’t Selectively Activate the VMO but Electric Stimulation Will

Effects of electrical stimulation of vastus medialis obliquus muscle in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome: an electromyographic analysis. Garcia FR1, Azevedo FM, Alves N, Carvalho AC, Padovani CR, Negrão Filho RF. Rev Bras Fisioter. 2010 Nov-Dec;14(6):477-82. Abstract BACKGROUND: The use of surface electromyography (SEMG) has been considered a tool for quantitative assessment of patellofemoral pain … Read more

Hamstring Activity During Sprints

Hamstring musculotendon dynamics during stance and swing phases of high-speed running. Chumanov ES, Heiderscheit BC, Thelen DG. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011 Mar;43(3):525-32. Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hamstring strain injuries are common in sports that involve high-speed running. It remains uncertain whether the hamstrings are susceptible to injury during late swing phase, when … Read more

Imbalance/Weak Hamstrings Predict Strains in Pro Soccer

Strength imbalances and prevention of hamstring injury in professional soccer players: a prospective study. Croisier JL, Ganteaume S, Binet J, Genty M, Ferret JM. Am J Sports Med. 2008 Aug;36(8):1469-75. Abstract BACKGROUND: The relationship between muscle injury and strength disorders remains a matter of controversy. PURPOSE: Professional soccer players performed a preseason isokinetic testing aimed … Read more

Low Hip Strength Associated with Increased Spine Motion

Relationship between hip strength and trunk motion in college cross-country runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013 Jun;45(6):1125-30. Ford KR, Taylor-Haas JA, Genthe K, Hugentobler J. Abstract PURPOSE: Hip strength may directly relate to abnormal running mechanics and contribute to the high incidence of overuse injuries in distance runners. The purpose of this study was to … Read more

Short Foot Exercise for Flat Feet

Effect of foot orthoses and short-foot exercise on the cross-sectional area of the abductor hallucis muscle in subjects with pes planus: a randomized controlled trial. Jung DY1, Koh EK, Kwon OY. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2011;24(4):225-31.  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To prevent overuse injuries related to excessively pronated feet, the strengthening of the foot intrinsic muscles has been recommended. … Read more

Plantar Fasciitis Stretches? Why My Patients Skip Them

Tissue-specific plantar fascia-stretching exercise enhances outcomes in patients with chronic heel pain. A prospective, randomized study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003 Jul;85-A(7):1270-7. DiGiovanni BF, Nawoczenski DA, Lintal ME, Moore EA, Murray JC, Wilding GE, Baumhauer JF. Abstract BACKGROUND: Approximately 10% of patients with plantar fasciitis have development of persistent and often disabling symptoms. A … Read more

Electric Stimulation and Plantar Fasciitis

Use of low-frequency electrical stimulation for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2009 Nov-Dec;99(6):481-8. Stratton M1, McPoil TG, Cornwall MW, Patrick K. Abstract BACKGROUND: Recent research has discussed the use of low-frequency electrical stimulation to increase blood flow by eliciting muscular contraction in soft tissues. This randomized clinical trial examined the … Read more

Resistance Training Improves Running Biomechanics

Resistance training is accompanied by increases in hip strength and changes in lower extremity biomechanics during running. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2009 Jan;24(1):26-34. Snyder KR, Earl JE, O’Connor KM, Ebersole KT. Abstract BACKGROUND: Movement and muscle activity of the hip have been shown to affect movement of the lower extremity, and been related to injury. … Read more

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction & Muscle Weakness

Women with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction have diminished ankle and hip muscle performance. J Orthop Sports Physical Therapy. 2011 Sep;41(9):687-94. Kulig K, Popovich JM Jr, Noceti-Dewit LM, Reischl SF, Kim D. Abstract STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study using a cross-sectional design. OBJECTIVES: To characterize ankle and hip muscle performance in women with posterior tibial tendon … Read more

Orthotics Cause Shin Splints in Runners?

Risk factors associated with medial tibial stress syndrome in runners: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Open Access J Sports Med. 2013 Nov 13;4:229-41. Newman P, Witchalls J, Waddington G, Adams R. Abstract BACKGROUND: Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) affects 5%-35% of runners. Research over the last 40 years investigating a range of interventions has not … Read more

Patellofemoral Pain & Orthotics, Predicting Who Will Benefit

A clinical prediction rule for identifying patients with patellofemoral pain who are likely to benefit from foot orthoses: a preliminary determination. Br J Sports Med. 2010 Sep;44(12):862-6. 26. Vicenzino B1, Collins N, Cleland J, McPoil T. Abstract OBJECTIVE: To develop a clinical prediction rule to identify patients with patellofemoral pain (PFP) who are more likely … Read more

Tibial Stress Fractures in Runners: It’s All the Same Problem

Distinct hip and rearfoot kinematics in female runners with a history of tibial stress fracture. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2010 Feb;40(2):59-66. Milner CE1, Hamill J, Davis IS. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional controlled laboratory study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the kinematics of the hip, knee, and rearfoot in the frontal and transverse planes in female … Read more

Strength Better than Stretch for Plantar Fasciitis

High-load strength training improves outcome in patients with plantar fasciitis: A randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2014 Aug 21. Rathleff MS1, Mølgaard CM, Fredberg U, Kaalund S, Andersen KB, Jensen TT, Aaskov S, Olesen JL. Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of shoe inserts … Read more

Plantar Fasciitis: One Cortisone Shot = 19X Risk of Rupture

Risk factors affecting chronic rupture of the plantar fascia. Foot Ankle Int. 2014 Mar;35(3):258-63. Lee HS1, Choi YR, Kim SW, Lee JY, Seo JH, Jeong JJ. Abstract BACKGROUND: Prior to 1994, plantar fascia ruptures were considered as an acute injury that occurred primarily in athletes. However, plantar fascia ruptures have recently been reported in the setting of … Read more

Foot Muscle Fatigue Causes Loss of Foot Arch

Fatigue of the plantar intrinsic foot muscles increases navicular drop. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2008 Jun;18(3):420-5.  Headlee DL, Leonard JL, Hart JM, Ingersoll CD, Hertel J. Abstract Our purpose was to assess the effect of foot intrinsic muscle fatigue on pronation, as assessed with navicular drop, during static stance. Twenty-one healthy young adults participated. Navicular drop … Read more

Foot Intrinsic Muscles Important for Foot Arch

Intrinsic pedal musculature support of the medial longitudinal arch: an electromyography study. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2003 Nov-Dec;42(6):327-33. Fiolkowski P, Brunt D, Bishop M, Woo R, Horodyski M. Abstract Much of the work describing support of the medial longitudinal arch has focused on the plantar fascia and the extrinsic muscles. There is little research concerning … Read more

Runners with Patellofemoral Pain, Have Altered Hip and Knee Rotational Stress

Patellofemoral joint stress during running in females with and without patellofemoral pain. Knee. 2012 Oct;19(5):703-8. Wirtz AD1, Willson JD, Kernozek TW, Hong DA. Abstract Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a common complaint among female runners. The etiology for PFP is frequently associated with increased patellofemoral joint stress (PFJS) and altered hip and knee joint kinematics during … Read more

Foot Orthotics Help Some with Patellofemoral Pain

Foot orthoses and physiotherapy in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome: randomised clinical trial. Br J Sports Med. 2009 Mar;43(3):169-71. Collins N1, Crossley K, Beller E, Darnell R, McPoil T, Vicenzino B. Abstract OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical efficacy of foot orthoses in the management of patellofemoral pain syndrome with flat inserts or physiotherapy, and … Read more

Running Volume Increase Effects on Injury

Can GPS be used to detect deleterious progression in training volume among runners? J Strength Cond Res. 2013 Jun;27(6):1471-8. Nielsen RO1, Cederholm P, Buist I, Sørensen H, Lind M, Rasmussen S. Abstract There is a need to ascertain if an association exists between excessive progression in weekly volume and development of running-related injuries (RRI). The … Read more

Marathon Runners, Running >30 Km/Wk Decreases Risk of Injury

Weekly running volume and risk of running-related injuries among marathon runners. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2013 Apr;8(2):111-20. Rasmussen CH, Nielsen RO, Juul MS, Rasmussen S. Abstract PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race. METHODS: The study … Read more

Runners with Plantar Fasciitis Have Weak, Tight Calf Muscles

Functional biomechanical deficits in running athletes with plantar fasciitis. Am J Sports Med. 1991 Jan-Feb;19(1):66-71. Kibler WB1, Goldberg C, Chandler TJ. Abstract Plantar fasciitis is a relatively common injury that occurs in running athletes. The disease entity is a good example of an overloaded process of the plantar fascia at its calcaneal insertion. This study … Read more

Plantar Fasciitis Sufferers Have Weaker Foot Muscles

Toe flexors strength and passive extension range of motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint in individuals with plantar fasciitis. J Orthop Sports Physical Therapy. 2003 Aug;33(8):468-78. Allen RH, Gross MT. Abstract STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVE: To determine if a difference exists in toe flexors strength and passive extension range of motion of the first … Read more

Plantar Fasciitis Associated with Foot Muscle Atrophy

Use of MRI for volume estimation of tibialis posterior and plantar intrinsic foot muscles in healthy and chronic plantar fasciitis limbs. Chang R, Kent-Braun JA, Hamill J. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2012 Jun;27(5):500-5. Abstract BACKGROUND: Due to complexity of the plantar intrinsic foot muscles, little is known about their muscle architecture in vivo. Chronic plantar fasciitis … Read more

Plantar Fasciitis: Orthotics Don’t Help Much

Effectiveness of foot orthoses to treat plantar fasciitis: a randomized trial. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Jun 26;166(12):1305-10. Landorf KB, Keenan AM, Herbert RD. Abstract BACKGROUND: Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common foot complaints. It is often treated with foot orthoses; however, studies of the effects of orthoses are generally of poor quality, and … Read more

Electric Muscle Stimulation for Athletes

Electromyostimulation–a systematic review of the effects of different electromyostimulation methods on selected strength parameters in trained and elite athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2012 Sep;26(9):2600-14. Filipovic A1, Kleinöder H, Dörmann U, Mester J. Abstract This is the first part of 2 studies that systematically review the current state of research and structure the results of … Read more

Hip Pain: Trochanteric Bursitis Isn’t Bursitis

Prospective evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging and physical examination findings in patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Arthritis Rheum. 2001 Sep;44(9):2138-45. Bird PA1, Oakley SP, Shnier R, Kirkham BW. From the Study “All subjects were women (median age 58 years, range 36-75 years). The median duration of symptoms was 12 months (range 12-60 months). MRI … Read more

Eccentric vs Eccentric Plus Shock-Wave Treatment for Achilles Tendinopathy

Eccentric loading versus eccentric loading plus shock-wave treatment for midportion Achilles tendinopathy: a randomized controlled trial. Rompe JD, Furia J, Maffulli N. Am J Sports Med. 2009 Mar;37(3):463-70. Epub 2008 Dec 15. Abstract BACKGROUND: Results of a previous randomized controlled trial have shown comparable effectiveness of a standardized eccentric loading training and of repetitive low-energy … Read more

Eccentric Exercise and Heel Brace for Achilles Tendinopathy

Eccentric exercises for the management of tendinopathy of the main body of the Achilles tendon with or without the AirHeel Brace. A randomized controlled trial. A: effects on pain and microcirculation. Knobloch K, Schreibmueller L, Longo UG, Vogt PM. Disabil Rehabil. 2008;30(20-22):1685-91. Abstract PURPOSE: To compare eccentric training and the combination of eccentric training with … Read more

Eccentric Exercise vs. Ultrasound for Achilles Tendo Pain

Eccentric calf muscle training compared with therapeutic ultrasound for chronic Achilles tendon pain–a pilot study. Chester R, Costa ML, Shepstone L, Cooper A, Donell ST. Man Ther. 2008 Dec;13(6):484-91. Epub 2007 Jul 26. Abstract A number of studies have indicated that eccentric calf muscle training has beneficial effects in the management of Achilles tendon pain … Read more

Eccentric calf muscle training in athletic patients with Achilles tendinopathy

Eccentric calf muscle training in athletic patients with Achilles tendinopathy. Maffulli N, Walley G, Sayana MK, Longo UG, Denaro V. Disabil Rehabil. 2008;30(20-22):1677-84.  Abstract PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of eccentric strengthening exercises (ESE) in athletic patients with Achilles tendinopathy. METHODS: Forty-five athletic patients (29 men, average age 26 years +/- 12.8, range 18 – … Read more

No Rest Necessary for Achilles Tendinopathy

Continued sports activity, using a pain-monitoring model, during rehabilitation in patients with Achilles tendinopathy: a randomized controlled study. Silbernagel KG, Thomeé R, Eriksson BI, Karlsson J. Am J Sports Med. 2007 Jun;35(6):897-906. Abstract BACKGROUND: Achilles tendinopathy is a common overuse injury, especially among athletes involved in activities that include running and jumping. Often an initial … Read more

Eccentric exercise in treatment of Achilles tendinopathy

Eccentric exercise in treatment of Achilles tendinopathy. Nørregaard J, Larsen CC, Bieler T, Langberg H. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2007 Apr;17(2):133-8. Abstract AIM: Prognosis and treatment of Achilles tendon pain (achillodynia) has been insufficiently studied. The purpose of the present study was to examine the long-term effect of eccentric exercises compared with stretching exercises … Read more

Eccentric loading, shock-wave treatment, or a wait-and-see policy for tendinopathy

Eccentric loading, shock-wave treatment, or a wait-and-see policy for tendinopathy of the main body of tendo Achilles: a randomized controlled trial. Rompe JD, Nafe B, Furia JP, Maffulli N. Am J Sports Med. 2007 Mar;35(3):374-83. Epub 2007 Jan 23. Abstract BACKGROUND: Few randomized controlled trials compare different methods of management in chronic tendinopathy of the … Read more

Achilles Tendinopathy, Symptom Recovery Does Not Ensure Functional Recovery

Full symptomatic recovery does not ensure full recovery of muscle-tendon function in patients with Achilles tendinopathy. Silbernagel KG, Thomeé R, Eriksson BI, Karlsson J. Br J Sports Med. 2007 Apr;41(4):276-80; discussion 280. Epub 2007 Jan 29. Abstract OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between muscle-tendon function and symptoms in patients with Achilles tendinopathy using a validated … Read more

Eccentric Training and Neovascularisation in Achilles Tendinosis

Effects on neovascularisation behind the good results with eccentric training in chronic mid-portion Achilles tendinosis? Ohberg L, Alfredson H. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2004 Sep;12(5):465-70. Epub 2004 Apr 2. Abstract The background to the good clinical results reported using painful eccentric calf-muscle training as treatment for chronic painful mid-portion Achilles tendinosis is not known. … Read more

Eccentric Calf Muscle Training for Achilles Tendinitis

Chronic Achilles tendon pain treated with eccentric calf-muscle training. Fahlström M, Jonsson P, Lorentzon R, Alfredson H. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2003 Sep;11(5):327-33. Epub 2003 Aug 26. Abstract Injuries involving the Achilles tendon and manifested as chronic tendon pain are common, especially among recreational athletes. In a pilot study on a small group of … Read more

Eccentric vs. Concentric Training in Achilles Tendinitis

Superior short-term results with eccentric calf muscle training compared to concentric training in a randomized prospective multicenter study on patients with chronic Achilles tendinosis. Mafi N, Lorentzon R, Alfredson H. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2001;9(1):42-47. Abstract In a previous uncontrolled pilot study we demonstrated very good clinical results with eccentric calf muscle training on … Read more

Heavy Load Eccentric Training for Achilles Tendinosis

Heavy-load eccentric calf muscle training for the treatment of chronic Achilles tendinosis. Alfredson H, Pietila T, Jonsson P, R. L. Am J Sports Med. 1998;26(3):360-366. Abstract We prospectively studied the effect of heavy-load eccentric calf muscle training in 15 recreational athletes (12 men and 3 women; mean age, 44.3 +/- 7.0 years) who had the … Read more